A 2015 ILOLabour market study in Jordan showed that 50 per cent of Jordanians and 99 per centof Syrians are working in the informal economy. De facto this means that these jobs fall completely outside thescope of any form of governance. This has a negative impact on the quality ofthe jobs provided such as sub-standard wages, poor working conditions andexploitative practices, including child labour. At the same time thecompetition for jobs has led to social tensions.
This is of particularconcern in the northern governorates, Zarqa, Irbid and Mafraq, and in Ammanwhere the share of Syrian refugees is greatest. The vast majority of theserefugees — 81 per cent — live in cities and towns instead of camps, where theymainly rely on themselves to cover rent, transportation and medical costs. Alimited number of refugees have work permits, and thus most of these familiesrely on the labour market and on humanitarian assistance to meet their mostbasic needs.
The presence of therefugees in Irbid and Mafraq has also increased the usage of the roads and theamount of waste being dumped on roads and in the drains. The refugees` presencehas been seen as the cause of the overall reduction in services and the generallydifficult situation.